World Wood Day Foundation and International Wood Culture Society (IWCS) are honored to work with Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS), to present a series of videos: Fire in the West. In the last few decades, wildfires in the west have become an increasing problem for the USA. Through presentations and discussions with experienced researchers, we would like to open a conversation to the public about how and why wildfires occur and hope to bring more awareness and understanding about them. In this video, we have invited Dr. Sharon M. Hood, Research Ecologist with Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) and Jessica Brewen, Science Delivery specialist with RMRS. Hosted by Steve Ambrose, retired Forest Service employee and now volunteer for IWCS, this presentation and discussion focuses on two elements that impact forests directly: wildfire and bark beetles. In her demonstration, Dr. Hood explains how fire effects tree defenses and forest resistance to bark beetles; and how we could create resilient conditions in forests to withstand beetle outbreak and other disturbances. Outlines: Presentation by RMRS Research Ecologist: Dr. Sharon M. Hood- Effects of compound disturbances in ponderosa pine forests. #Wildfire and bark beetle both are both common disturbances. #How changes in fire regime affect bark beetles. #Bark beetle and tree defenses. #Resin ducts and resin flow vs. bark beetle attack. #Fire and resin ducts. #How fuel treatments affect forest resistance to mountain pine beetle. Group discussion: Q&A #What causes the bark beetle outbreaks. #Climate and resin production. #Tree ages and resin ducts. #Fires and resin ducts. #How resin protect trees from beetles. #How beetles survive in fires. #Mountain pine beetles’ outbreak. #Difficulties with fuel treatments against bark beetles. #Progression of bark beetle attacking. #Bark beetles study and prevention across countries. More information about Wildland Fire Management Strategy: https://www.forestsandrangelands.gov/strategy/thestrategy.shtml More information about RMRS and Fire Fuel & Smoke Program: https://www.fs.usda.gov/rmrs/ https://www.fs.usda.gov/rmrs/science-program-areas/fire-fuel-and-smoke More questions? Contact our presenters! https://www.fs.usda.gov/rmrs/people/shood
Fire in the West - Wildland/Urban Interface (WUI)
Insights from social science and human dimensions research.
World Wood Day Foundation and International Wood Culture Society are honored to work with Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS), to present a series of videos: Fire in the West.
In the last few decades, wildfires in the west have become an increasing problem for the USA. Through presentations and discussions with experienced researchers, we would like to open a conversation to the public about how and why wildfires occur and hope to bring more awareness and understanding about them.
In our first video, we have invited Dr. Sarah M. McCaffrey, Research Forester with Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS); Dr. Jeffrey T. Morisette, Program Manager of Human dimensions program; and Jessica Brewen, Science Delivery specialist with RMRS. Hosted by Mr. Steve Ambrose, the theme is regarding a crucial facet in wildfire research: Wildland/Urban Interface (WUI). In the presentation, researchers will provide insights from social and human dimension research. Their research focuses on ways to help communities be proactive about living in areas where fires are part of the natural process in forests.
Presentation by RMRS Human Dimensions program director: Dr. Jeffrey Morisette
#Wood is good, and not all fires are bad.
#The work at the RMRS and Human dimensions program:
#Definition of WUI
Presentation by RMRS Research Forester: Dr. Sarah McCaffrey
#What is WUI.
#WUI doesn’t equal to fire risk.
#WUI expansion doesn’t necessarily mean fire risk increase.
#Language consideration regarding WUI discussion.
Group discussion: Q&A
#Biggest challenge for this research so far.
#Landowner’s responsibilities and how the officials can help.
#Move or not move after the fire? Take Paradise Fire as an example.
#What people can do to protect their property.
#What the community can do to help the fire.
#Landscape Fragmentation for social science and human dimensions.
#How do you see social science research and human dimensions evolving into the future?
#It’s not about how to control fire, it’s about relearning how to live with it, thrive with it.
#Allow fire to play its natural role in the system.
More information about Wildland Fire Management Strategy:
More information about RMRS and Human Dimensions Program:
More questions? Contact our presenters!
Araucaria, as the city tree of Curitiba, is an ancient species from the dinosaurs time. A fossil stone from Araucaria with around 250 million years was stored in Parana, Brazil. Researcher Dr. Ivar Wendling from Embrapa Forestry, gave us a detailed explanation about the important of Araucaria, from seedling cultivation, nuts producing, to the usage of wood and its fiber. Araucaria is native to some parts of the cold regions in South Brazil as well the north of Argentina and some parts of Paraguay. This long-lived tree species contributes so much to fauna, to mankind and natural environment at many aspects, and also helps us know the climate change of the past times.
The film is set around a poem that talks about the similar differences both humans and wood have, and how connected we are through those differences. The film highlights the diversity of wood/trees in relation to the diversity within humans
There is a mystery hiding behind the inimitable sound of Stradivarius’ instruments. All through the years there have been many speculations: there are those who say that he used special varnishes, alchemies handled down from father to son, or even that the trees that he used contained particular types of wood fungi. In truth, it seems that Stradivari and the other masters from Cremona were first of all experts in selecting the wood, and that they went into the forests in person to choose the most suitable trees. According to a legend, Antonio Stradivari rolled the trunks to select those with the most vibrant timbre. Until today the mystery remain unsolved.
"Primeval Forest" is a story about the last primeval forest in Europe, the Bialowieza forest, located on the border between Poland and Belarus. This transboundary property is exceptional for the opportunities it offers for biodiversity conservation, nevertheless it is now in danger due to excessive wood logging. This place has always been a great inspiration for artists. “Primeval Forest” presents the Bialowieza Forest from the perspective of people who care about the place deeply and understand the importance of keeping it alive for next generations.
This is an ancient oriental tale about natural forces and human greed, told by children for the future generations. Enter the world of magic and children fantasies. So, once upon a time in desert a little man met a great sacred tree, which granted his every wish. He wished for more and more without consideration for his tree. And here is what happened...
Film was created without special effects. Ideas of costumes, decorations and characters were created by children.
What sound does wood make? In West Africa wood brings the sound of hope to Swaluman, a carpenter, and his farming father. Not only is wood essential for their daily survival, but wood is also helping them create a better future for their family.
The video was shown during the XIV World Forestry Congress 2015 in Durban, South Africa in response to its theme, “Forests and People: Investing in a Sustainable Future.”
International Wood Culture Society (IWCS) explores and approaches the value and usage of wood from a cultural perspective to emphasize the significance of wood in relation to the human life.
The river Drina and Tara mountains are located in the western part of Serbia.
On July the 13. 1981. Tara becomes a National park covering area of 19.175 ha.
Due to its climate and isolation Tara preserved ancient species of trees such as pancic spruce and other almost fossil species of plants. Tara is mostly made of limestone and its average height is 1000-1200m. The highest point is Kozji Rid -1591m and the lowest 291m is at the lake Peru?ac. Vrelo River is the strongest fountain in the national park, which runs into river Drina after 365 meters. Summers are fresh and winters are cold with lots of snow. Most rainfall is in May. Driest months are July and August. Autumn is sunny and warmer then spring.
NP Tara is 80% covered with forests. There are 34 forest and 19 meadow communities. 75% of forests are mixed spruce-fir, fir and beech. Besides Pančić spruce significant plants are hazel, yew, holly, jeremičak, knapweed of derventa, peony, blechnum spicant.
There are 53 species of mammals. The most interesting are bear (Ursus arctos), and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) which lives even on elevation of 291m. There are 135 species of birds. 43 of them are migrating species. The most interesting are endangered species such are golden eagle (Aquila chryssetos), peregrine falcon and others.
There are more than 251 species of mushrooms. Three of them are poisonous. Amanita phalloides is the most dangerous mushroom in Europe.
Fishing on rivers and lakes within the NP is a real pleasure. There are about 40 species of fish. (mladica (Hucho – hucho), lipljan (Thumallus thumallus), gull, carp, jez (Leuciscus idus)…
In the NP Tara there are many archeological sights dating from neolith to middle ages. There are stecaks in Perucac, remnants of medieval fortress Solotnik and monastery Ra?a, built by king Dragutin Nemanji? in the 13. century.
There are 18 mountain foot paths with total length of 120km. When using those paths you should consult maps which can be bought at information points in the park.
A journey into the future of the diverse uses and realities through which wood marks and bounds, in an enduring naturalness, the existence of man to its own. A stream of images and sounds will try to express in a visual synthesis the concept of “Wood and Humanity”.
Jimmy Smith grew up in a small town located in the middle of New Jersey's great Pine Barrens. His Father's love for nature led him down a path of woodworking that grew into a business he started and now runs with his brother.
Sama Jaya Nature Reserve works as a recreational park for local citizens. Surrounded by forests, the green path is the track especially designed for joggers and walkers. The park ranger guided us to some special plant area in the reserve.
The celebration of indigenous cultures is lively in the northeastern part of Australia that a large number of worldwide visitors come here to join and experience. Compared to the other areas in Australia, Cairns has a higher population of the indigenous people. In here, you can find handmade traditional wooden tools like boomerangs, spears, and more. The Cairns Indigenous Art Festival (CIAF) is one of the most renowned annual celebrations of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures’ visual and performing arts since 2009, and offers an opportunity for indigenous artists to showcase and sell their artworks.
Undara Volcanic National Park is located in the north Queensland, and is famous for the remains of lava tubes formed around 190,000 years ago. The volcano erupted and expelled great amount of lava around the area, and thus geologically and ecologically affected the environment. In order to better balance the ecology here, indigenous people used fire to manage the forest and the fire management is still applied as the most effective way nowadays. Tallaroo, located west of Undara, is known for the permanent hot springs that is considered as a sacred place for healing purposes by the tribal people.
Zaanse Schans is one major attraction of Netherlands, where is famous by its well-preserved historic windmills. Within here, the combination from colors, nature, and culture is vivid reflection of people's imagination about Dutch lifestyle. And these windmills provides not only touristic value but also multi traditional products. Even more, if we date back to 16th century, windmills actually helped Dutch built Holland!
Nashtifan is close to the border of Iran and Afghanistan. Here, 120 days out of a year are windy, which allows windmills to function well. Some scholars have proposed that these wooden windmills are the origin of the first windmills, which then spread to China in the east and Europe in the west. Pine wood, which grows in the neighborhood forest, is usually used as the axis of the windmill.
Shouf Biosphere Reserve is the largest cedar reserve in Lebanon, taking up 5% of its total land. In the old times, cedars were traded and used in various ways, including boat and temple-building. For instance, the solar boat in ancient Egypt was made of Lebanese cedars. The massive need for cedars has resulted in the declining of tree numbers, and therefore, reserves were established to protect this precious national tree. Mr. Faisal Abu-Izzeddin is one of the establishers of Shouf Biosphere Reserve.
The Qadisha valley, which also known as the Holy valley, is one of the earliest Christian monastic settlements in the world. Its monasteries, many of which an age of centuries, stand in subtle positions in the deep gorge. Nearby, the “Cedars of God” is one of the oldest cedar forests in Lebanon. The cedars here were once exported for many usages and now is a protected species. The sites are now co-listed in the UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Bruce Greco, Director of Outreach Ecological Restoration Institute, brings IWCS to the research site in Coconino National Forest, AZ, USA, and talks about how natural fire plays an important role in conserving and maintaining the sustainability of ponderosa pine forests.
The pinyon pine nut, a popular snack food of the native American Navajo people, savory after roasted, is believed to be a good source of protein and other nutrients. In the video, Shanna Yazzie, a Navajo from Cameron, Arizona, told of one of the remaining traditions kept by their hunters and gatherers on pinyon pine nut picking, demonstrating how the people take care of the nuts after harvest.
Ghaf tree is the national tree in the UAE as its value from both cultural and ecological perspectives. It is a versatile tree that provides food, shelter and medicine for the traditional Bedouins and their animals. Ghaf trees can be abundantly found in Dubai Desert Conservation Reserve along with the rich ecosystem that develops around them.
Established in 1954, Henry Cowell Redwoods State Park is a native land to old-growth Redwood Grove. The 4,623-acre park preserves coast redwood, which is formally named sequoia sempervirens, an evergreen, long-lived, monoecious tree living 1,200–1,800 years, and growing to approximately 300 feet tall and over 16 feet in diameter. The park also boasts an environment for many habitats, such as sandhill community, mixed evergreen and other species. Its 15 miles of hiking and riding trails through a variety of forested areas and the trains through the redwoods are local residents and visitors’ favorites.
A thousand years ago, Saint Romuald founded the Sacred Hermitage and Monastery of Camaldoli in the forest a thousand meters above the sea level in Tuscany, Italy. The resources provided by both exotic and regional trees have been a support for the daily life, and as a protection to the monastery. The beauty of the mutualism between the monks and the trees is well demonstrated in this forest.
This natural forest, which is called Original Laurel forest, is a mix of conifers and broadleaf evergreen trees, but the main body is still broad-leaved forest. It is noticed that the "Ash-wood" is the most important water-conservation trees in the area of Himalaya Mountains, even the entire Asia.
Mt. Changbai Valley was formed by a process of long term erosion of rocks and lava after volcanic eruptions and solidification of lava. The valley is about 100 meters in depth, and 70 kilometers in length. Some says the beauty of Mt. Changbai Valley could be compared with the Grand Canyon in America.
zi River is an underground river, with a bottom at 40 meters. Tizi means ladder in Chinese and it gets the name for two reasons. First, the steep rocky valley is like a ladder, which is hard to climb, and second, the shape of the valley is like trapezoid.
The freezing weather in the northeast of China is suitable for white birches. Like its name, the trunk of white birches is snow white all year round. For people who enjoy outdoor activities, white birch is a great tree species partly because the bark of white birches can be made as firewood, and partly because people can get liquid from the tree to quench their thirst.
The best environment for Pu'er tea leaves to grow is under camphor trees. Camphor trees produce camphor which helps the tea leaves fight against pests and disease. The tea leaves will absorb camphor which will intensify the aroma and taste of Pur'er tea. Camphor trees themselves have developed an ecological protective system and have existed for more than 3,000 years.
We took a long journey to Nannuoshan to look for the oldest tea tree ("king") that has existed for 800 years. Professor Shengji Pei explained that the tree belongs to the Spondia family. It was exciting to see an 800-year-old tree still flourishing.
Nannuoshan is located between a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest and a mid-montane humid evergreen broad-leaved forest. Species found in each climate can also be found in Nannuoshan. The Hani people have acclimated to living in the mountain and therefore tea has become their economic crop.
We came across a tea house built from wood standing in front of the oldest tea tree. A Hani woman made a pot of tea for us. It was really refreshing to take a rest there after a long day of walking around in the mountains.
The Nepali hog plum is highly nutritious. The fruit is oval-shaped, turns yellow when ripe and tastes sour but sweet. These two tall trees seen here have grown together since saplings. Their reliance on each other truly touched us.
Bamboo is divided into sympodial, scattered and mixed bamboo species. Sympodial bamboo is the original species. 18 of the ancient bamboos are of the sympodial bamboo species and among them, 14 are found in Yunnan. Bamboo can be found in Yunnan between 74.5 m to 4,500 m of the Gaoligong Mountain despite the vast climate range from the hottest to the coldest area.
The video introduces the local agroforestry and ecosystem of Xishuangbanna. The local Dai people plant camphor trees mixing with tea trees as seen in the video. As a result, the tea leaves have a distinctive flavor and the camphor acts as a natural insect repellent so pesticides are not used. This is a good example of a balanced ecosystem.
We were honored to see the Hani people making tea. The elders have grieved that most of the younger generation have moved into the city for work and only those over forty years old know how to brew tea using natural materials.
All the tools and materials used to brew tea by the Hani are from nature. A wild bamboo culm is used as a cup and leaves can be folded into a funnel to pour water. Fill the bamboo cup with the natural mountain spring water and boil over fire. The fire can also be used to bake fresh wild tea leaves. The tea is done when the wild tea leaves are softened by the fire after about 15 minutes brewing.
Birch may be your best option for survival if you ever get lost in a forest - it can be used from root to top, core to bark and has been one of the best solutions to everything from clothing, transportation, to curing diseases in many cultures in the Northern hemisphere. It is also an excellent raw material for art and handicrafts. Watch the video and find out all you need to know about this amazing gift from nature.
A girl interprets her vision and hearing about the village where she comes from, the Wa tribe in China, and the imagery of the village and movements of villagers are like a documentary vividly presented within her mind. The Wa tribe is undergoing the cultural transformation, and Wa wood drum becomes the crucial cultural element for them to reclaim and preserve what they have missed from the ancestors.
Kilwa Kisiwani (which means "Kilwa of the Island") is located off the coast of Tanzania, East Africa. This thriving seaport was once being forgotten, but now is a protected site in the list of UNESCO world Heritage.
Kilwa Kisiwani was subjugated to different races, including Persian (Iranian nowadays), Portuguese and Arabian due to its superior geographic location for trading. It was once a famous seaport but lost its glory since the mid-19th century. There are still around 1000 residents living in this tranquil island at the present time.
People dwell in huts that are made of palm leaves and logs, which are collected from trees on the island. Villagers build and repair dhows for fishing. Fishing is the main economic activity, but after Kilwa Kisiwani being listed as the world heritage, the newly developed eco-tourism has brought in additional income for villagers.
The Usambara Mountain is part of the Eastern Arc Mountains, which stretches from Kenya to Tanzania. The mountain range in North-East Tanzania extends approximately 110 km long and 64 km in width. Although the altitude is not as high as Kilimanjaro, the Usambaras are recognized as one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots.
The Usambaras are commonly spilt into two parts, the West Usambara and the East Usambara. Since the East Usambara is close to the coast and receives more rainfall, the geographic feature makes it abundant in plant species.
We visited Magamba Nature Reserve, which is in the West Usambara, to see different tree species in the natural forest and how local people utilize wood in their daily life.
The town of Baham is located at the Western Province of the Republic of Cameroon. Given that Baham is close to rainforests and up on a mountainous region, the temperature is rather mild. In the region around Baham there are a total of 16 villages. Residential settlements disperse from the center of the town, and one can see lively neighborhood. Peasants and children either stroll or do house chores along the sandy trails that go up and down the hills. Most of the residents still lead a relatively original life and live on farming and trading. Therefore, the use of firewood and wooden construction materials for small residential cabins are easily seen everywhere.
Douala, the largest city in Cameroon, owns the biggest port in the country. It is the commercial capital, majorly handling the export of oil, coca, metal, fruits and timber.
Wood is the most accessible natural resource in Cameroon and is therefore widely used in people’s daily life. We traveled to Youwpe and Miwake, villages around Douala, and collected plenty of precious information about how local people make good use of wood, and make products ranging from artistic sculptures and accessories, to canoes and charcoal. The people also maintain a sustainable way of using wood. For example, charcoal makers in the Miwake region, which is located southwest to Douala, pick only naturally dead trees as their raw material. By doing so, the timber is transformed into another form and becomes another useful product for the people.
Bothwell Park, formerly an industrial waste dumpsite now being regenerated as woodlands, is located at Glasgow. It is a 49ha land owned largely by North Lanarkshire Council (NLC) and managed by Forestry Commission Scotland, at an area that is in one of the most economically-deprived communities in Scotland. Playing a part in the regeneration process, the Forestry Commission has worked with the NLC to restore the land and turn it into a public green space that could serve recreational, educational, and environmental purposes to the people in the vicinity. There will be a wetland, woodlands, and an open space in the park.
The Highland Folk Museum is a living history site with an area of 32 hectares. In 1955, the open-air museum is open to public with portray of domestic and working condition of the old highlanders, showing how they used to build homes, decorate houses, till soils, weave wools and dress. It encapsulates aspects of 200 years of Highland rural life, starting from the early 1700s until the present day.
According to the stone remain of each house base, the carpenters and archaeology professors from University of Glasgow are working together on an experimental project on how the wooden roof would be built and how the interior would be arranged in the past.
The museum interpreted the highland folk history by re-locate and re-create buildings and features, such as schools, farms and shops, plus monthly programs, including various workshops and music events held to provide visitors an engaging experience of the town life.
Built in 1913, Edinburgh Zoo is a zoology park with an area of 82 acre. It lies on the Corstrorphine Hill, which not only provides extensive view of the city but also offers environment features that shape several microclimates. Therefore, Edinburgh Zoo is also characterized by collections of at least 1,200 different tree species and 3,500 plant species.
In order to create a suitable habitat for the animals, a group of trained botanic gardeners collaborate with the zoo keepers to manage the enclosure for the animals. Moreover, since the climate has changed dramatically over the past few years, the gardeners are now facing the challenge to cope with the issue.
Wood pasture, a historical land management system in the Europe, is an open woodland providing shelters for cattle and sheep, as well as the timber products including charcoal and house construction.
Glen Finglas is a glen in the Trossachs, which has been described as the miniature Highlands. Part of the region within the area was the Royal Hunting Forest from the King David and James II onwards. And wood pasture is restored across the estate, creating a vast mosaic of woodland. Glen Finglas was once covered with plenty of different tree species, including alder, birch, oak hazel, rowan and willow, but over the centuries, the wood pasture has been decreased to scattered remnants.
Located in the northeast of Scotland, the Cairngorms National Park is the largest one in the UK, covering an area of 4,528 km2 (1,748 sq mi). The Cairngorms was established in 2003, and inhabited by a population about 70,000 people in the area, where 75% of the land is privately owned by individuals or companies, while 10 to 15% is possessed by NGOs; and the rest is governmental property. The Cairngorms National Park Authority has therefore devoted its efforts to collaborate with the landowners, and encouraged them to plan their lands beyond boundaries. This idea and the economic value of joining the national park have interested the neighboring citizens and led to the park extension in 2009.
Cairngorms owns Britain’s highest and most massive mountain range and also the biggest native forests. Most of the forests and woodlands are well managed not just for timber products, but more importantly, to sustain the biodiversity, habitats, and landscape value.
Dr. Pieter Baas, an expert of wood anatomy and former scientific director of the herbarium, guided us through the wooden specimen collection at the university. The herbarium is one of the world’s largest with over 5.5 million plant specimens collected from around the world over the last decades. The wooden specimens are also in profusion and they go through a series of bug-removing and maintenance processes before being stored. The experts on wood at the institution conduct researches around the world.
Latvia does not have any mountains, but yet is covered by forests for about 60% of land. In Gauja National Park, people can operate their own land and run the business in relation to nature. The Archaeological Museum where the buried houses of 9th -10th Century were revealed represents the life of then, including tools, weapons and daily objects, up to medieval time. While in Latvia, one thing you cannot miss out is that refresh your energy in a traditional Latvian Bath house which usually lies on the imaginary ley line full of spiritual power. Having a land mostly covered with forest urges people to learn to respect the nature, and the Educational programme is committing to this very concept and brings it to the global level.
Spreading over the meadows at the bottom of the Western Tatras, Orava Village signals a good location for an open-air museum. Orava village museum is aiming to represent the exterior settings of settlements and the living environment of these villages of the 12th to 13th Century, and brings the visitors closer to the wooden structure and furniture with which the life of village people are connected. Scattering as a real village setting in Orava, the Latin school, the market, cattle place, fire alarm bell and the surrounding settings of the whole village compose the image of a mountainous village of the old time and offer the pleasant atmosphere for visitors to experience the country life.
East Carpathians Biosphere Reserve stretches across three countries, Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine and constitutes one of the best protected areas for endemic and threatened animals. The part in Slovakia is Poloniny National Park, the only national park in Eastern Slovakia. The national park contains not only the primeval forests, but also normal villages and a huge reservoir. People who have lived in this area own their houses but share half of the land with the council and can do whatever they want to the house. Unfortunately, people still intend to move out of the most eastern end to big cities to earn their living.
One of the highest mountains in Romania, Apuseni Mountain, which belongs to the Western Carpathian, is dwelled by only small number of people dotted over the whole mountain range. Wood is the only and the main resource people have up in the mountain. They rely on wood to make a living and live their life. People travel on cart into the deep forest to log and bring their own supply home. We met a plank maker, a rich man who had hired two local young guys to build his new house and a poor family who has no job and only rely on the berries collected from the forest nearby to bring them some income.
Mines View, also Mines view park, is where visitors can not only see the breathtaking mountainous landscape, but a spectacular view of copper and gold mines of the early 20th century.
Mines View Park is one of the most popular/visited parks in the Benguet. There are many woodcraft souvenir shops in the surrounding area, where tourist can purchase unique aboriginal woodcrafts made by local carvers.
If lucky enough, tourists may also have the chance to see Ifugao teenager dress in their traditional costumes, and play traditional wooden drums to attract tourists’attention.
The island of Langkawi, also named as the Jewel of Kedah, is located some 30 km off the mainland coast of northwestern Malaysia. It has been a popular tourist spot for its natural pristine beauty.
With a population of about 64, 792, the island has a rich culture of wood and timber use is embedded in the life of the residents. For example,the Temple Tree/ Bon Ton Resort has a collection of ancient houses from allparts of Malaysia that display the unique wooden constructions of each regionand culture.
There are also traditional Malay wooden houses scattering on the countryside. Among them, we visited a large, luxurious private residence,which is a blend of tradition and modern construction.
Erdaobaihe town is located in the south of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, the foot of Changbai Mountain. The town is rich in its natural resources and has 94% of forest coverage and 190,000 hectares area of forest.
Because of its average altitude of 800 meters, the freezing weather is suitable for growing pines and birches. Here in Erdaobaihe town, there are 120 different species of trees and 30 types of precious trees.
Erdaobaihe town is one of the most important lumber yards in China. Therefore, 300,000 cubic meters of lumbers are produced at Erdaobaihe town every year.
Changbai Mountain has rich natural resources with 190,000 hectares of nature reserve. It is also an ecological tourist attraction, including virgin forests, lakes, waterfall, hot springs, and valleys…etc.
The north scenic spot of Changbai Mountain contains the largest number of attractions among three slopes, including Small Sky Pond, Changbai Waterfall, Underground Forest and the Heaven Lake. During wintertime, the high altitude of Changbai Mountain causes the frozen surface of the lake and pool and it creates a beautiful landscape.
Apart from the natural sceneries, Changbai Mountain is also the origin of ethnic minorities. According to ancient tales, Manchu people originated at this “sacred mountain.”
Songjianghe Town is at the southeast of Fusong County. The area has rich natural resources with 89.2% of forest coverage and 17,000 hectares of forest. Here, lumber storage can reach up to 3.7 million cubic meters.
Songjianghe Town is only 41 kilometers away from Heaven Lake; hence, it is called the “First Town at the Foot of Changbai Mountain”. Songjianghe Town has convenient transportation, which provides good condition for developing tourism.
Ginseng and pine nuts are two specialties in this area. The folk tale of Laobatou – the ancestor of gathering ginseng - is prevailing in the area that people even build a temple to worship him.
Fusong County is located at the southeast of Jilin Province where Changbai Mountain is. Not only the magnificent natural landscape, but also the richness of resources attracts millions of tourists from the world.
Fusong County has a history of ginseng planting for over 400 years. In 1982, the total output of ginseng has reached 7,500,000 kilograms. Therefore, Fusong County is named as the “hometown of ginseng in China.”
Ginseng planting is the prominent industry in Fusong County where there is the biggest ginseng market in the world. Within the county, there is a ginseng museum that records and preserves the tradition of gathering ginseng in China.
Changbai Mountain is at the border of China and Korea, with the peak of 2691 meters. It is the highest mountain in the northeast of China. Due to its high altitude, the variety of plant species is rather great. From the river valley to the top of the mountain, there are various species of plant ranging from Temperate Zone to Frigid Zone.
There are three slopes, which are the north, south and west scenic spot, within the terrain of China all leads to the top- the Heaven Lake. The Heaven Lake is the largest and highest volcanic lake in China. Every year from November to the next June, the lake is frozen except only for the little area of the crater.
At the west scenic spot, the main attractions are the grand valley and the underground river shaped by glaciation.
The Camellia in Zixi Mountain in Chuxiong is world-famous and it attracts numerous tourists every year. The video is introducing the Camellia, including the size of flowers, the number of petals and the explanation of natural variation. Furthermore, we can see these 600-year-old Camellias and those with natural variation.
Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG), founded in 1959, is the largest botanical garden in China. Under the leadership of the famous botanist Professor Cai Xi Tao, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden is a national research institution focusing on forest ecosystem ecology, conservation biology and resource plant development. It is a comprehensive research programme that engaged in biodiversity conservation and sustainable uses of plant resources. Nowadays, there are around 12,000 species of tropical plants are well preserved here.
Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden has set a goal to be the World Class Botanical Garden with the support from Yunnan government. Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden has also made outstanding contributions to the area of science research, species preservation, science education and the development of technology.
Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden preserves over 12,000 species of tropical plants in a large tropical rainforest of 1100 ha. Also, it has established regular cooperation with over 50 countries. In recent years, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden has successfully organized and hosted a series of international conferences, and has also included outstanding scholars in the world as honorary professors.
Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden has been recognized as National Knowledge innovated Base, National Youth Base of Science, National AAAAA Rank Tourist Spot, and National Demonstrated Civilized Tourist Spot. There are more than 500,000 people coming to the garden annually for tourist and educational purposes.
The Nannuoshan Tea Forest represents the tea culture of the Hani people, a minority ethnic group in Xishuanbanna. In addition, the biodiversity is so rich because of the elevation and climate. Forests located at an altitude between 1,500 to 1,600 meters are generally called monsoon evergreen broad-leave forests and forests above an altitude of 1,600 meters are called mid-montane humid evergreen broad-leave forests. Nannoushan is located at an altitude of 1,600 meters at the border of two climate zones, which explains why both tree species can be found in Nannoushan. High altitude areas in this region are also called High Altitude Wetlands because at higher altitudes, the air temperature drops, water vapor condenses, air humidifies and rainfall is more frequent. South Yunnan is located in a tropical mountainous area. The high elevation contributes to the vivid climate. South Yunnan is located in a high altitude area ranging from 67 to 3,000 meters, up to 4,000 meters above sea level. The mountain is located in a low altitude area which accounts for various climates and a rich biodiversity.The local economy exists symbiotically with the local ecology. The Dai people live in a low altitude region (the basin) and the Hani people live in the mountains. The local biodiversity is affected by the climate and living conditions of the respective groups. Both tea and bamboo cultures can be found in Nannuoshan. The blending of the two cultures is common in Yunnan.
The JinJen Octagon, built in 1703 A.D.was one type of Hinayana Buddhist architecture. It was used as a venue for meeting and chanting amongst monks. During the Cultural Revolution, Chinese government forbade people from participating in any religious activities. Many monks at the JinJen Octagon were sent back to their countriesor hometowns. The revolution ended in 1976. Restrictions on religious activities were lifted in the 1980s and JinJen Octagon gradually regained its vitality.
Experts congregated at the JinJen Octagon to discuss plantsspecies, tree growths and usage surrounding it. The biggest tree around the JinJen Octagon is the Bodhi tree (sacredfig). Next to it is a Blossoming Tree, which is known as the Golden Lotus forits shape. The Golden Lotus belongs to the Musaceae family. Growing on the Bodhi tree was Lumeria Rubra and ferns. Therefore, the Bodhi tree itselfis regarded as a botanical garden.
Manyangguang Forestry mostly lived by Dai people now, who use Dai language still. Dai language is 80 percent similar to Thai language in Thailand. Some Manyangguang schools teach bilingual languages (Dai language, Mandarin). To the overall village, there are no much differences from a decade ago to now, but the original wood tiles have been replaced by modern cement. Traditional Dai houses - so called Ganlan-style Architecture (Stilt-style Architecture), which often kept animal on the ground floor, and people live above. The usually use selected wood to build the Ganlan- style Architecture, because selected wood can prevent termites from decay the wooden column. Dai people also know that chicken eats termites, so they raise chicken too. In addition, they raising buffalo and pigs, so that mosquitoes will attack livestock rather than human being, deducting the chance people getting malaria.
Manfeilong Pagodas are called “Tanuo” meaning “bamboo tower” in the Dai language. The pagodas were built in 1204 BC from brick and stone. There are nine towers total with the main tower in the center surrounded by the other eight forming an octagon. It is considered a valuable work of art and a national symbol for ancient buildings. The Manfeilong Pagodas and other Buddhist temples are built by the minority ethnic groups whose religion is Theravada. The trees and flowers to be planted around the temples are chosen according to Theravada beliefs. Each species of tree is a sacred representation of each generation of Theravada Buddha.